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Hay terms beginning with:


Cash Price - Term used to represent the economic value or worth of a commodity. Often used to distinguish all other prices from futures trading on an organized commodity futures market.

Certified Organic Hay Hay that has been certified as organic by a USDA-approved organic hay certification program. Organic farming systems rely on practices such as cultural and biological pest management, and virtually prohibit synthetic chemicals in crop production and antibiotics or hormones in livestock production. For example, organic farmers provide habitat for predators and parasites of crop pests, calculate planting/harvesting dates and rotate crops to maintain soil fertility, and cycle animal and green manures as fertilizer. Overall, certified organic cropland and pasture accounted for about 0.5 percent of U.S. total farmland in 2005. Fifty-three organic certification organizations, including 19 State programs, conducted third-party certification of organic production and handling in 2005. USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service implements national legislation and implemented rules in October 2002 that require all except the smallest organic growers (less than $5,000 in sales) be certified by a State or private agency accredited under USDA's national organic standards.

Color (of hay) - Color is not always a good indicator of quality. Color often tells us more about the curing process of the hay than its quality. Hay that is bright green was typically cut at a desirable stage of maturity and rapidly cured. Yellow color is often a result of sun bleaching and does not seriously reduce quality. Brownish hay is usually a result of excessive moisture during the curing process, thus indicating some degree of fermentation. Dark brown or black is often an indicator that the hay was exposed to rain or high humidity and is usually accompanied by a distinctive musty odor. Overall, slight discolorations from sun bleaching, dew or moderate fermentation are not as serious as the loss of green color from maturity, rain damage or excessive heating or fermentation.

Commission Merchant - Person who makes a trade in his own name and becomes liable as principal between himself and the other party to the trade.

Companion crop - A crop such as a small grain that is sown with another crop, especially one that will emerge and develop slowly, such as a forage crop. Preferred to the term nurse crop.

Conservation - The preservation of forages to provide feed when other feed is not available or of low quality, e.g. hay, haylage, silage.

Consignment - A shipment sent to a commission merchant for him to sell.

Contamination - Entry of undesirable micro-organisms to some material or object.

Contract Price - Price and conditions of sale agreed upon when buyer and seller negotiate a transaction.

Cool-season grass - (1) Grass species that grow best during cool, moist periods of the year. (2) Grasses, such as fescues, that start growing actively in late winter and early spring. They flower in spring and early summer, but once the thermometer tops 75 degrees, their growth slows down.

Cover - (1) The plant or plant parts, living or dead, on the ground surface. (2) The proportional area of ground covered by plants on a stated area.

Cover crop - A crop planted to prevent soil erosion and to suppress weeds; can also improve soil and/or provide forage

Cow-calf operation - A livestock operation in which a base breeding herd of mother cows and bulls is maintained. The cows produce a calf crop each year, and the operation keeps some heifer calves from each calf crop for breeding herd replacements. The rest of the calf crop is sold between the ages of 6 and 12 months along with old or non-productive cows and bulls.

Crabgrass An annual to perennial, warm-season forage of the genus Digitaria which is highly palatable but does not stockpile well for standing forage in the winter.

Creeping grasses - Grasses like bluegrass, Bermuda and most warm season grasses that spread by above-ground or below-ground runners.

Crimped - Rolled with corrugated rollers, especially fresh forage, to break stems and facilitate drying.

Crocodile seeder - A specialised planter used for sowing into a rough, unprepared seedbed.

Cropland - Land devoted to the production of cultivated crops. May be used to produce forage crops.

Crop rotation The practice of alternating the annual crops grown on a specific field in a planned pattern or sequence in successive crop years so that crops of the same species or family are not grown without interruption on the same field. Perennial cropping systems employ means such as alley cropping, intercropping, and hedgerows to introduce biological diversity in lieu of crop rotation.

Crop year (U.S.) - Period from one harvest of a crop to the next harvest in the following year. The period varies among hay growing regions.

Crude Fiber (CP) - Coarse, fibrous portions of plants, such as cellulose, that are partially digestible and relatively low in nutritional value. In chemical analysis, it is the residue obtained after boiling plant material with dilute acid and then with dilute alkali. Term is being replaced with more specific NDF (neutral detergent fiber) and ADF (acid detergent fiber).

Crude Protein (CP) - For individual feeds, this is the percentage of crude protein in the feed dry matter. For the total diet, it is the percentage of crude protein of the total diet, or, in the amount-fed basis, it is the total amount of crude protein in the ration for the animal per day. Crude protein is determined by measuring the total nitrogen (N) and multiplying by 6.25.

Cubing - Process of forming hay into high-density cubes to facilitate transportation, storage, and feeding.

Cultivar Development Any activity of crossing, transformation, and/or selection (including marker-assisted selection) among plants which has the direct purpose of releasing a crop variety.

Cultivation Digging up or cutting the soil to prepare a seed bed; control weeds; aerate the soil; or work organic matter, crop residues, or fertilizers into the soil.

The Hay Barn Glossary

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